The greatest hormonal and psychological changes in the female body occur during pregnancy. One of the most important areas where such changes occur is the oral cavity. An increase in the level of hormones such as estrogen and progesterone can significantly increase the permeability of blood vessels in the gum tissues, which can lead to serious gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis, the main symptoms of which are swollen and bleeding gums. Pregnancy-related lesions, usually local, such as gestational epulis or generalized, such as gestational gingivitis. These injuries usually go away after the end of pregnancy. But in women with periodontitis, the clinical condition is likely to worsen. Pregnant women with gum disease are exposed to risks such as pre-eclampsia, premature birth and the birth of a child with a weight less than normal.
During pregnancy, women should recognize signs such as bleeding gums and their inflammation, pain when chewing, bad breath, increased tooth decay with discharge from the gums, which are the main signals of oral diseases, and in the presence of any of these symptoms, you should immediately contact a periodontist. As part of the periodontal examination, the periodontist examines the oral cavity, assessing the main indicators, such as the amount of barley in the tooth, the depth of pockets and bleeding during probing, and also provides detailed information about the health of the gums, the diagnosis of gingivitis or periodontitis around the teeth in the presence of the disease, as well as perimplantation mucositis or perimplantitis around the implants and the appropriate treatment measures provided. Non-surgical treatment of gum diseases and individual oral hygiene training, consisting of professional brushing of teeth and implants by a periodontist and subgingival instrumentalization, is effective in preventing gum inflammation and maintaining gum health during pregnancy, protecting pregnant women from these risks. To prevent gum disease during pregnancy, it is recommended to ensure a high level of personal oral hygiene by brushing teeth and gums with a soft brush twice a day, as well as regularly using interdental brushes/dental floss every day. Modern scientific research proves that gum treatment performed before pregnancy is effective in preventing the risk of unsatisfactory pregnancy results.
Obstetricians and gynecologists should include oral examination in women in the list of regular examinations, tell in detail about the possible risks of gum diseases during pregnancy and about the positive effect of treatment of these diseases on the elimination of these risks. During the examination, it is necessary to examine the patient's oral cavity and check the condition of the oral cavity under direct light to assess signs such as bleeding gums, unpleasant odor, inflammation in the area between the tooth and gum. If any of these signs are detected, the patient should be referred to a periodontist to diagnose existing gum diseases and prescribe treatment. In addition, since there are a number of common risk factors that negatively affect the course of pregnancy and periodontal health (for example, cigarette use), a healthy lifestyle should be preferred and promoted.
The aim of the educational campaign of the European Federation of Periodontology (EFP‘ "Oral health and pregnancy’ is to promote the national societies of periodontology of the 37 member countries of the Federation with the latest scientifically based brochures with recommendations and video animations to ensure oral health in women, oral health and other medical professionals during pregnancy in these countries. The educational campaign "Oral Health and Pregnancy" is supported by the European Federation of Periodontology and the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Javid Ahmadbayli, Associate Professor of the Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery of the Azerbaijan State Advanced Training Institute for Doctors named after A. Aliyev, Vice President and project coordinator of the Society, assistant of the Department of Therapeutic Dentistry of the Azerbaijan Medical University Hanifa Musayeva and Secretary General of the Society Vafa Khanmamedova. The campaign was developed in Azerbaijani for oral health and for other medical professionals.